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Learn C Programming

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    5.1 Conditional branching - if

    5.1.1 if statementAn if statement contains a Boolean expression and block of statements enclosed within braces.Structure of if statement :if (boolean expression ) /* if expression is true */  statements... ; /* Execute statements */If the Boolean expression is true…

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    7.1 Blocks and Scope

    C is a block structured language. Blocks are enclosed by { and }. Blocks can be defined wherever a C statement could be used. No semi-colon is required after the closing brace of a block.Variable Scoperefers to where variables is…

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    8.2 Pointer

    Pointer is a variable that stores the address of another variable. They can make some things much easier help improve your program's efficiency and even allow you to handle unlimited amounts of data. C Pointer is used to allocate memory…

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    9.5 Terminolory - Glossary

    Argument: A value passed to a function when it is called.block: Sequence of statements enclosed in curly braces.buffer: A region of storage used to hold data. IO facilities often store input (or output) in a buffer and read or write…

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    5.4 Local Jumps goto

    We can jump to any statement inside the same function using goto. To spot the end point of the jump a label (tag) is used. goto statement is not to ideal to choose in any programming language because it makes…

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    9.6 FAQ

    Section 1: Declarations and Initializations 1.1: How do you decide which integer type to use?Use ``short'' when you need to avoid values over 32 767 ``int'' when you want to store integers ``long'' for long numbers (more than 6 digits)…

Learn C++ Programming

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    8.6 Operator Overloading

    Operator overloading is an important concept in C++. It is a type of polymorphism in which an operator is overloaded to give user defined meaning to it. Overloaded operator is used to perform operation on user-defined data type.Overloaded operators are…

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    8.8 Data Abstraction

    Object Oriented Programming has a special feature called data abstraction. Data abstraction allows ignoring the details of how a data type is represented. While defining a class both member data and member functions are described. However while using an object…

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    4.3 Pointer

    Pointer is a variable that stores the address of another variable. They can make some things much easier help improve your program's efficiency and even allow you to handle unlimited amounts of data. Pointer is used to allocate memory dynamically…

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    9.3 Templates

    Templates in C++ programming allows function or class to work on more than one data type at once without writing different codes for different data types. Templates are often used in larger programs for the purpose of code reusability and…

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    5.4 clog (log stream)

    The predefined object clog is an instance of ostream class. The clog object is said to be attached to the standard error device which is also a display screen but the object clog is buffered. This means that each insertion…

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    4.5 Reference

    References are another variable type of C++ that act as an alias or short name to another variable. A reference variable acts just like the original variable it is referencing. References are declared by using an ampersand (&) between the…

Learn Java Programming

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    5.4 Creating thread

    Threads are implemented in the form of objects that contain a method called run().The run() method is the heart and soul of any thread.public void run(){/* Your implementation of thethread here*/}The run() method should be invoked by an object of…

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    5.8 Synchronization

    Thread synchronization is the concurrent execution of two or more threads that share critical resources. Threads should be synchronized to avoid critical resource use conflicts. Otherwise conflicts may arise when parallel-running threads attempt to modify a common variable at the…

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    8.8 FAQ

    Question : What do you know about Java?Java is a high-level programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. Java runs on a variety of platforms such as Windows Mac OS and the various versions of UNIX.Question…

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    2.6 While loop

    Java while loop is used to execute statement(s) until a condition holds true.SYNTAXwhile (condition(s)) {// statements}If the condition holds true then the body of loop is executed after execution of loop body condition is tested again and if the condition…

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    3.6 Static keyword

    The static keyword in java is used for memory management mainly. We can apply java static keyword with variables methods blocks and nested class. The static keyword belongs to the class than instance of the class.The static can be:1. variable…

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    4.7 Extending Interfaces

    An interface can extend another interface similarly to the way that a class can extend another class. The extends keyword is used to extend an interface and the child interface inherits the methods of the parent interface.this is achieved using…

Learn PHP Programming

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    PHP - Web Concepts

    PHP - Web Concepts This session demonstrates how PHP can provide dynamic content according to browser type randomlygenerated numbers or User Input. It also demonstrated how the client browser can be redirected.Identifying Browser & PlatformPHP creates some useful environment variables that can…

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    PHP - GET & POST Methods

    PHP - GET & POST MethodsThere are two ways the browser client can send information to the web server.The GET MethodThe POST MethodBefore the browser sends the information it encodes it using a scheme called URL encoding. In this scheme…

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    PHP - File Uploading

    PHP - File Uploading A PHP script can be used with a HTML form to allow users to upload files to the server. Initially files are uploaded into a temporary directory and then relocated to a target destination by a PHP…

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    PHP - Variable Types

    PHP - Variable Types The main way to store information in the middle of a PHP program is by using a variable.Here are the most important things to know about variables in PHP.All variables in PHP are denoted with a leading…

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    PHP - Environment Setup

    PHP - Environment Setup Try it Option OnlineWe have set up the PHP Programming environment on-line so that you can compile and execute all the available examples on line. It gives you confidence in what you are reading and enables you…

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    PHP - Functions

    PHP - Functions PHP functions are similar to other programming languages. A function is a piece of code which takes one more input in the form of parameter and does some processing and returns a value.You already have seen many functions…

Learn C# Programming

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    C# - Unsafe Codes

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Unsafe Codes C# allows using pointer variables in a function of code block when it is marked by the unsafe modifier. The unsafe code or the unmanaged code is a code block…

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    C# - Inheritance

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Inheritance One of the most important concepts in object-oriented programming is inheritance. Inheritance allows us to define a class in terms of another class which makes it easier to create and maintain…

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    C# - Regular Expressions

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Regular Expressions A regular expression is a pattern that could be matched against an input text. The .Net framework provides a regular expression engine that allows such matching. A pattern consists of…

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    C# - Program Structure

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Program Structure Before we study basic building blocks of the C# programming language let us look at a bare minimum C# program structure so that we can take it as a reference…

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    C# - Delegates

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Delegates C# delegates are similar to pointers to functions in C or C++. A delegate is a reference type variable that holds the reference to a method. The reference can be changed…

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    C# - Reflection

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Reflection Reflection objects are used for obtaining type information at runtime. The classes that give access to the metadata of a running program are in the System.Reflection namespace. The System.Reflection namespace contains…

Learn Unix & Shell Programming

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    Unix - Pipes and Filters

    Unix - Pipes and FiltersYou can connect two commands together so that the output from one program becomes the input of the next program. Two or more commands connected in this way form a pipe.To make a pipe put a…

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    Unix - Directory Management

    Unix - Directory ManagementA directory is a file whose sole job is to store file names and related information. All files whether ordinary special or directory are contained in directories.UNIX uses a hierarchical structure for organizing files and directories. This…

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    Unix - Environment

    Unix - EnvironmentAn important Unix concept is the environment which is defined by environment variables. Some are set by the system others by you yet others by the shell or any program that loads another program.A variable is a character…

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    Unix - Using Shell Arrays

    Unix - Using Shell ArraysA shell variable is capable enough to hold a single value. This type of variables are called scalar variables.Shell supports a different type of variable called an array variable that can hold multiple values at the…

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    Unix - Shell Basic Operators

    Unix - Shell Basic OperatorsThere are various operators supported by each shell. Our tutorial is based on default shell (Bourne) so we are going to cover all the important Bourne Shell operators in the tutorial.There are following operators which we…

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    Unix - Signals and Traps

    Unix - Signals and TrapsSignals are software interrupts sent to a program to indicate that an important event has occurred. The events can vary from user requests to illegal memory access errors. Some signals such as the interrupt signal indicate…

Learn JavaScript

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    jQuery: AJAX

    JQuery: AJAXjQuery has some AJAX helper methods that save time and are much easier to read. They are all properties of the $ variable: $.get $.post and $.ajax.$.ajax is the main method allowing you to manually construct your AJAX request…

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    Making Stuff Happen

    Making Stuff HappenThere’s a few ways to try out JavaScript and when learning it’s best to try them out to see what works for you. But first how does JavaScript relate to HTML and CSS?HTML CSS and JavaScriptMostly JavaScript runs…

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    Functions

    Functions  Functions are reusable blocks of code that carry out a specific task. To execute the code in a function you call it. A function can be passed arguments to use and a function may return a value to whatever called…

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    Creating Elements

    Creating ElementsCreating elements using HTML tags isn’t the only way to do it — in fact it’s possible to create modify and insert elements from JavaScript.Here’s an example that creates a div adds some text to it and appends it…

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    Angular

    Angular  AngularJS is an open-source client-side JavaScript framework that uses HTML as its templating language. It’s notable for it’s philosophy that declarative programming is better than imperative programming for wiring up user interfaces and creating modular components. Angular is MVC but it…

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    Objects

    ObjectsJavaScript objects are like a real life objects; they have properties and abilities. A JavaScript object is in that sense a collection of named properties and methods - a function. An object can be stored in a variable and the…

SQLite Tutorial

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    Chapter 20

    Description:SQLite JOINS are used to retrieve data from multiple tables. A SQLite JOIN is performed whenever two or more tables are joined in a SQLite statement.There are different types of SQLite joins: SQLite INNER JOIN (or sometimes called simple join)…

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    Chapter 36

    Description: The SQLite HAVING clause is used in combination with the GROUP BY clause to restrict the groups of returned rows to only those whose the condition is TRUE.Syntax: SELECT expression1 expression2 ... expression_n aggregate_function (aggregate_expression)FROM tables[WHERE conditions]GROUP BY expression1…

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    Chapter 38

    Description:The SQLite CREATE TABLE AS statement is used to create a table from an existing table by copying the existing table's columns.Syntax: CREATE TABLE new_table AS SELECT expressions FROM existing_tables [WHERE conditions];Parameters or Arguments:new_tableThe name of the table that you…

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    Chapter 33

    Description: The SQLite MIN function returns the minimum value of an expression.Syntax: SELECT MIN(aggregate_expression) FROM tables WHERE conditions;OR Grouping the results by one or more columns is: SELECT expression1 expression2 ... expression_n MIN(aggregate_expression) FROM tables WHERE conditions GROUP BY expression1…

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    Chapter 8

    Description: The SQLite DROP TABLE statement allows you to remove or delete a table from the SQLite database. The SQLite DROP DATABASE statement is used to delete a database.Syntax:DROP TABLE syntax: DROP TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] table_name;Parameters or Arguments:table_nameThe…

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    Chapter 37

    Description:In SQLite a VIEW is not a physical table but rather it is in essence a virtual table created by a query joining one or more tables.Create VIEWSyntax: CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT columns FROM tables [WHERE conditions];Parameters or Arguments:view_nameThe…

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