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Learn C Programming

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    9.2 Union

    C Union is also like structure i.e. collection of different data types which are grouped together. Each element in a union is called member. Union and structure both are same except allocating memory for their members. Structure allocates storage space…

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    5.5 Break and Continue

    5.5.1 Break statementBreak statement is usually used to terminate a case in the switch statement. Break statement in loops to instantly terminates the loop and program control goes to the next statement after the loop.If break statement is used in…

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    9.4 C Preprocessor directives

    Before a C program is compiled in a compiler source code is processed by a program called preprocessor. This process is called preprocessing.Commands used in preprocessor are called preprocessor directives and they begin with ''#'' symbol. Below is the list…

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    6.3 Standard Header Files

    Standard header files contains Prototypes of the library functions. For example math.h contains prototypes for mathematical operations. some standard header files are:stdio.h printf scanf getchar putchat etc.stdlib.h utility functions; number conversions memory allocation exit and system Quick Sortfloat.h system limits…

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    7.3 Definition & Declaration

    Definition is the place where variable is created (allocated storage).Declaration is a place where nature (type) of variable is stated but no storage is allocated.Initialization means assigning a value to the variable.Variables can be declared many times but defined only…

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    8.1 Arrays

    Array is a collection of similar data type items. Arrays are used to store group of data of same datatype. Arrays can of any datatype. Arrays must have constant size. Continuous memory locations are used to store array. Array index…

Learn C++ Programming

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    6.2 Conditional selection - switch

    A switch statement is used instead of nested if...else statements. It is multiple branch decision statement of C++.A switch statement tests a variable with list of values for equivalence. Each value is called a case.The case value must be a…

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    5.1 cout (output stream)

    On most program environments the standard output by default is the screen and the C++ stream object defined to access it is cout. cout is an instance of iostream classFor formatted output operations cout is used together with the insertion…

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    6.3 Loops - while & for

    While loopThe while loop calculates the expression before every loop. If the expression is true then block of statements is executed so it will not execute If the condition is initially false. It needs the parenthesis like the if statement.while…

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    8.2 Constructor - Destructor

    ConstructorA constructor is a special kind of class member function that is executed when an object of that class is instantiated. Constructors are typically used to initialize member variables of the class to appropriate default values or to allow the…

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    6.4 Break and Continue

    Break statementBreak statement is usually used to terminate a case in the switch statement. Break statement in loops to instantly terminates the loop and program control goes to the next statement after the loop.If break statement is used in nested…

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    8.4 Inheritance

    Inheritance is one of the key feature of object-oriented programming including C++ which allows user to create a new class(derived class) from a existing class(base class). The derived class inherits all feature from a base class and it can have…

Learn Java Programming

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    2.5 Switch statement

    A switch statement is used instead of nested if...else statements. It is multiple branch decision statement. A switch statement tests a variable with list of values for equivalence. Each value is called a case.The case value must be a constant…

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    7.3 Creating an Executable Applet

    To create an executable jar file there should be a main class (a class with a main method) inside the jar to run the software. An applet has no main method since it is usually designed to work inside a…

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    3.9 Final keyword

    The final keyword in java is used to restrict the user. The java final keyword can be used in many context. Final can be:- variable- method- classThe final keyword can be applied with the variables a final variable that have…

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    1.6 Variables

    A variable provides us with named storage that our programs can manipulate. Each variable in Java has a specific type which determines the size and layout of the variable's memory; the range of values that can be stored within that…

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    3.3 Constructors

    Constructor in java is a special type of method that is used to initialize the object.Java constructor is invoked at the time of object creation. It constructs the values i.e. provides data for the object therefore it is known as…

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    3.6 Static keyword

    The static keyword in java is used for memory management mainly. We can apply java static keyword with variables methods blocks and nested class. The static keyword belongs to the class than instance of the class.The static can be:1. variable…

Learn PHP Programming

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    PHP - Introduction

    PHP - Introduction PHP started out as a small open source project that evolved as more and more people found out how useful it was. Rasmus Lerdorf unleashed the first version of PHP way back in 1994.PHP is a recursive acronym…

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    PHP - Predefined Variables

    PHP - Predefined Variables PHP provides a large number of predefined variables to any script which it runs. PHP provides an additional set of predefined arrays containing variables from the web server the environment and user input. These new arrays are…

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    PHP - Regular Expressions

    PHP - Regular ExpressionsRegular expressions are nothing more than a sequence or pattern of characters itself. They provide the foundation for pattern-matching functionality.Using regular expression you can search a particular string inside a another string you can replace one string…

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    PHP - Coding Standard

    PHP - Coding Standard Every company follows a different coding standard based on their best practices. Coding standard is required because there may be many developers working on different modules so if they will start inventing their own standards then source…

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    PHP & XML

    PHP & XMLXML is a markup language that looks a lot like HTML. An XML document is plain text and contains tags delimited by < and >.There are two big differences between XML and HTML −XML doesn't define a specific…

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    PHP - Variable Types

    PHP - Variable Types The main way to store information in the middle of a PHP program is by using a variable.Here are the most important things to know about variables in PHP.All variables in PHP are denoted with a leading…

Learn C# Programming

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    C# - Multithreading

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Multithreading A thread is defined as the execution path of a program. Each thread defines a unique flow of control. If your application involves complicated and time consuming operations then it is…

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    C# - Arrays

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Arrays An array stores a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. An array is used to store a collection of data but it is often more useful to think…

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    C# - Overview

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Overview C# is a modern general-purpose object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft and approved by European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) and International Standards Organization (ISO). C# was developed by Anders Hejlsberg and…

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    C# - Inheritance

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Inheritance One of the most important concepts in object-oriented programming is inheritance. Inheritance allows us to define a class in terms of another class which makes it easier to create and maintain…

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    C# - Exception Handling

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Exception Handling An exception is a problem that arises during the execution of a program. A C# exception is a response to an exceptional circumstance that arises while a program is running…

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    C# - Loops

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Loops There may be a situation when you need to execute a block of code several number of times. In general the statements are executed sequentially: The first statement in a function…

Learn Unix & Shell Programming

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    Unix - File Permission / Access Modes

    Unix - File Permission / Access ModesFile ownership is an important component of UNIX that provides a secure method for storing files. Every file in UNIX has the following attributes −Owner permissions − The owner's permissions determine what actions the…

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    Unix - Shell Manpage Help

    Unix - Shell Manpage HelpAll the Unix commands come with a number of optional and mandatory options. It is very common to forget complete syntax of these commands.Because no one can possibly remember every Unix command and all its options…

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    Unix - Using Shell Arrays

    Unix - Using Shell ArraysA shell variable is capable enough to hold a single value. This type of variables are called scalar variables.Shell supports a different type of variable called an array variable that can hold multiple values at the…

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    Unix - System Performance

    Unix - System PerformanceThe purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the performance analyst to some of the free tools available to monitor and manage performance on UNIX systems and to provide a guideline on how to diagnose and fix…

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    Unix - Shell Substitution

    Unix - Shell SubstitutionWhat is Substitution?The shell performs substitution when it encounters an expression that contains one or more special characters.ExampleFollowing is the example while printing value of the variable its substitued by its value. Same time \n is substituted…

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    Unix - User Administration

    Unix - User AdministrationThere are three types of accounts on a Unix system −Root account − This is also called superuser and would have complete and unfettered control of the system. A superuser can run any commands without any restriction.…

Learn JavaScript

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    jQuery: AJAX

    JQuery: AJAXjQuery has some AJAX helper methods that save time and are much easier to read. They are all properties of the $ variable: $.get $.post and $.ajax.$.ajax is the main method allowing you to manually construct your AJAX request…

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    AJAX

    AJAXIn the early years of the web things were simple — a page was text perhaps with styling and it contained links to other pages. To get new content you moved from one page to the next. But as developers…

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    Backbone

    Backbone  Backbone.js (aka Backbone) is designed to add structure to client-side applications to avoid a spaghetti-code mess.In the words of Backbone.js:Backbone.js gives structure to web applications by providing models with key-value binding and custom events collections with a rich API of…

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    Variables and Data

    Variables and DataStoring data so we can use it later is one of the most important things when writing code. Fortunately JavaScript can do this! If it couldn’t it’d be pretty darn useless.So let’s ask the user (that’s you) for…

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    Conditional

    ConditionalLogic is used to make decisions in code; choosing to run one piece of code or another depending on the comparisons made. This requires use of something called a conditional. There are a few different conditionals that you might want…

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    Angular

    Angular  AngularJS is an open-source client-side JavaScript framework that uses HTML as its templating language. It’s notable for it’s philosophy that declarative programming is better than imperative programming for wiring up user interfaces and creating modular components. Angular is MVC but it…

SQLite Tutorial

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    Chapter 6

    Description: The SQLite CREATE TABLE statement allows you to create and define a table.Syntax: CREATE TABLE table_name ( column1 datatype [ NULL | NOT NULL ] column2 datatype [ NULL | NOT NULL ] ... );Parameters or Arguments:table_nameThe name of…

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    Chapter 36

    Description: The SQLite HAVING clause is used in combination with the GROUP BY clause to restrict the groups of returned rows to only those whose the condition is TRUE.Syntax: SELECT expression1 expression2 ... expression_n aggregate_function (aggregate_expression)FROM tables[WHERE conditions]GROUP BY expression1…

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    Chapter 34

    Description:The SQLite COUNT function returns the COUNT of an expression.Syntax: SELECT COUNT(aggregate_expression) FROM tables WHERE conditions;OR Grouping the results by one or more columns is: SELECT expression1 expression2 ... expression_n COUNT(aggregate_expression) FROM tables WHERE conditions GROUP BY expression1 expression2 ...…

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    Chapter 26

    Description: The SQLite IN condition is used to help reduce the need to use multiple OR conditions in a SELECT INSERT UPDATE or DELETE statement.Syntax: expression IN (value1 value2 .... value_n);Parameters or Arguments:expressionsA value to test.value1 value2 … value_nThe values…

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    Chapter 13

    Description:The SQLite DELETE statement is used to delete a single record or multiple records from a table in SQLite.Syntax: DELETE FROM table WHERE conditions;Note: DELETE Statement uses WHERE clause. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be…

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    Chapter 8

    Description: The SQLite DROP TABLE statement allows you to remove or delete a table from the SQLite database. The SQLite DROP DATABASE statement is used to delete a database.Syntax:DROP TABLE syntax: DROP TABLE [ IF EXISTS ] table_name;Parameters or Arguments:table_nameThe…

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