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Learn C Programming

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    5.2 Conditional selection - switch

    switch()A switch statement is used instead of nested if...else statements. It is multiple branch decision statement of C.A switch statement tests a variable with list of values for equivalence. Each value is called a case.The case value must be a…

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    9.6 FAQ

    Section 1: Declarations and Initializations 1.1: How do you decide which integer type to use?Use ``short'' when you need to avoid values over 32 767 ``int'' when you want to store integers ``long'' for long numbers (more than 6 digits)…

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    1.2 Advantages of C

    - Fast Powerful & efficient- Easy to learn.- It is portable- ''Mid-level'' Language- Widely accepted language- Supports modular programming style- Useful for all applications- C is the native language of UNIX- Easy to connect with system devices/assembly routines

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    7.2 Variable Storage Classes

    Auto The default class. Automatic variables are local to their block. Their storage space is reclaimed on exit from the block.register If possible the variable will be stored in a processor register. May give faster access to the variable. If…

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    7.4 Initialisation of Variables

    Initialization means assigning a value to the variable.If variables are not explicitly initialised then external and static variables are initialised to zero; pointers (see ch 8) are initialised to NULL ; auto and register variables have undefined values.int x =…

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    4.1 Formatted IO - printf & scanf

    4.1.1 Formatted Output - printfIt takes text and values from within the program and sends it out onto the screen.printf(''%f is your weight\n'' w); In the above program statement: ''%f is your weight\n'' is the control string w   is…

Learn C++ Programming

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    7.2 Declaration call & argument

    Function DeclarationA function declaration tells the compiler about a function name and how to call the function. The actual body of the function can be defined separately.A function declaration has the following parts:return_type function_name( parameter list );For our defined function…

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    6.1 Conditional branching - if

    If statementAn if statement contains a Boolean expression and block of statements enclosed within braces.Structure of if statementif (boolean expression ) /* if expression is true */statements... ; /* Execute statements */If the Boolean expression is true then statement block…

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    3.5 Operators

    An operator is a symbol. Compiler identifies Operator and performs specific mathematical or logical operation.C provides following operators : # Arithmetic Operators# Logical Operators# Increment and Decrement Operators# Relational Operators# Cast Operators# Bitwise Operators# Assignment Operators# MiscArithmetic Operators* multiplication/ division%…

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    8.3 Friend Function

    A friend function of a class is defined outside that class' scope but it has the right to access all private and protected members of the class. Even though the prototypes for friend functions appear in the class definition friends…

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    3.3 Constants - Literals

    Constants refer to fixed values in the code that you can't change and they are called literals.Constants can be of any of the basic data types and can be divided into Integer literals Floating-Pointliterals Strings Characters and Boolean Values.Integer literalsAn…

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    4.3 Pointer

    Pointer is a variable that stores the address of another variable. They can make some things much easier help improve your program's efficiency and even allow you to handle unlimited amounts of data. Pointer is used to allocate memory dynamically…

Learn Java Programming

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    1.4 Environment Setup

    We need to install the Java Development Toolkit aka JDK which is bundled with the Java Runtime Environment. At this moment the latest JDK versions is JDK 8.All you have to do is head to the main download page provided…

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    2.4 If statement

    If statementAn if statement contains a Boolean expression and block of statements enclosed within braces.if(conditional expression) //statement or compound statement;else //optional //statement or compound statement; //optionalIf the Boolean expression is true then statement block is executed otherwise (if false) program…

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    2.2 Expression

    Expressions perform operations on data and move data around. Some expressions will be evaluated for their results some for their side effects some for both.An assignment expression has the following form. variable-expression assignment-operator expressionThe variable expression can be just the…

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    5.8 Synchronization

    Thread synchronization is the concurrent execution of two or more threads that share critical resources. Threads should be synchronized to avoid critical resource use conflicts. Otherwise conflicts may arise when parallel-running threads attempt to modify a common variable at the…

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    4.8 Implementing Interfaces

    A class uses the implements keyword to implement an interface. The implements keyword appears in the class declaration following the extends portion of the declaration.class classname implements interfacename { body of classname }here the classname implements the interface interfacename. A…

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    1.8 Variable scope

    There are three kinds of variables in Java:Local Variable:1. A variable that is declared inside the method is called local variable.2. Local variables are created when the method constructor or block is entered and the variable will be destroyed once…

Learn PHP Programming

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    PHP & MySQL

    PHP & MySQL PHP will work with virtually all database software including Oracle and Sybase but most commonly used is freely available MySQL database.What you should already have ?You have gone through MySQL tutorial to understand MySQL Basics.Downloaded and installed a…

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    PHP - File Uploading

    PHP - File Uploading A PHP script can be used with a HTML form to allow users to upload files to the server. Initially files are uploaded into a temporary directory and then relocated to a target destination by a PHP…

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    PHP - Variable Types

    PHP - Variable Types The main way to store information in the middle of a PHP program is by using a variable.Here are the most important things to know about variables in PHP.All variables in PHP are denoted with a leading…

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    PHP & AJAX

    PHP & AJAX What is AJAX ?AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is a new technique for creating better faster and more interactive web applications with the help of XML HTML CSS and Java Script.Conventional web application transmit information…

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    PHP - Bugs Debugging

    PHP - Bugs DebuggingPrograms rarely work correctly the first time. Many things can go wrong in your program that cause the PHP interpreter to generate an error message. You have a choice about where those error messages go. The messages…

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    PHP - Sending Emails using PHP

    PHP - Sending Emails using PHPPHP must be configured correctly in the php.ini file with the details of how your system sends email. Open php.ini file available in /etc/ directory and find the section headed [mail function].Windows users should ensure…

Learn C# Programming

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    C# - Methods

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Methods A method is a group of statements that together perform a task. Every C# program has at least one class with a method named Main. To use a method you need…

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    C# - Regular Expressions

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Regular Expressions A regular expression is a pattern that could be matched against an input text. The .Net framework provides a regular expression engine that allows such matching. A pattern consists of…

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    C# - Unsafe Codes

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Unsafe Codes C# allows using pointer variables in a function of code block when it is marked by the unsafe modifier. The unsafe code or the unmanaged code is a code block…

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    C# - Classes

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Classes When you define a class you define a blueprint for a data type. This does not actually define any data but it does define what the class name means. That is…

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    C# - Loops

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Loops There may be a situation when you need to execute a block of code several number of times. In general the statements are executed sequentially: The first statement in a function…

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    C# - Nullables

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Nullables C# provides a special data types the nullable types to which you can assign normal range of values as well as null values. For example you can store any value from…

Learn Unix & Shell Programming

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    Unix - Environment

    Unix - EnvironmentAn important Unix concept is the environment which is defined by environment variables. Some are set by the system others by you yet others by the shell or any program that loads another program.A variable is a character…

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    Unix - Pipes and Filters

    Unix - Pipes and FiltersYou can connect two commands together so that the output from one program becomes the input of the next program. Two or more commands connected in this way form a pipe.To make a pipe put a…

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    Unix - What is Shells?

    Unix - What is Shells?The shell provides you with an interface to the UNIX system. It gathers input from you and executes programs based on that input. When a program finishes executing it displays that program's output.A shell is an…

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    Unix - Using Shell Arrays

    Unix - Using Shell ArraysA shell variable is capable enough to hold a single value. This type of variables are called scalar variables.Shell supports a different type of variable called an array variable that can hold multiple values at the…

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    Unix - Shell Basic Operators

    Unix - Shell Basic OperatorsThere are various operators supported by each shell. Our tutorial is based on default shell (Bourne) so we are going to cover all the important Bourne Shell operators in the tutorial.There are following operators which we…

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    Unix - Shell Input/Output Redirections

    Unix - Shell Input/Output RedirectionsMost Unix system commands take input from your terminal and send the resulting output back to your terminal. A command normally reads its input from a place called standard input which happens to be your terminal…

Learn JavaScript

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    Closures

    Closures  A closure is a function that returns a function. The function that is returned (the inner function) is created inside the called function (the outer) so - due to the scoping rules we’ve seen - the inner has access to…

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    JSON

    JSON JSON — JavaScript Object Notation — is a set of text formatting rules for storing and transferring data in a machine and human readable way. It looks a lot like the object literal syntax of JavaScript and it is from…

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    Variables and Data

    Variables and DataStoring data so we can use it later is one of the most important things when writing code. Fortunately JavaScript can do this! If it couldn’t it’d be pretty darn useless.So let’s ask the user (that’s you) for…

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    Functions

    Functions  Functions are reusable blocks of code that carry out a specific task. To execute the code in a function you call it. A function can be passed arguments to use and a function may return a value to whatever called…

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    Creating Elements

    Creating ElementsCreating elements using HTML tags isn’t the only way to do it — in fact it’s possible to create modify and insert elements from JavaScript.Here’s an example that creates a div adds some text to it and appends it…

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    AJAX

    AJAXIn the early years of the web things were simple — a page was text perhaps with styling and it contained links to other pages. To get new content you moved from one page to the next. But as developers…

SQLite Tutorial

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    Chapter 7

    Description: The SQLite ALTER TABLE statement is used to add modify or drop/delete columns in a table. The SQLite ALTER TABLE statement is also used to rename a table.Syntax:i) ALTER TABLE – Add column in table Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name…

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    Chapter 4

    Description: Comparison operators are used in the WHERE clause to determine which records to select. Here is a list of the comparison operators that you can use in SQLite: Comparison Operator Description = Equal == Equal <> Not Equal !=…

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    Chapter 34

    Description:The SQLite COUNT function returns the COUNT of an expression.Syntax: SELECT COUNT(aggregate_expression) FROM tables WHERE conditions;OR Grouping the results by one or more columns is: SELECT expression1 expression2 ... expression_n COUNT(aggregate_expression) FROM tables WHERE conditions GROUP BY expression1 expression2 ...…

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    Chapter 26

    Description: The SQLite IN condition is used to help reduce the need to use multiple OR conditions in a SELECT INSERT UPDATE or DELETE statement.Syntax: expression IN (value1 value2 .... value_n);Parameters or Arguments:expressionsA value to test.value1 value2 … value_nThe values…

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    Chapter 10

    Description:The SQLite SELECT LIMIT statement is used to retrieve records from one or more tables in SQLite and limit the number of records returned based on a limit value.Syntax: SELECT expressions FROM tables WHERE conditions ORDER BY expression [ ASC…

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    Chapter 36

    Description: The SQLite HAVING clause is used in combination with the GROUP BY clause to restrict the groups of returned rows to only those whose the condition is TRUE.Syntax: SELECT expression1 expression2 ... expression_n aggregate_function (aggregate_expression)FROM tables[WHERE conditions]GROUP BY expression1…

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