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Learn C Programming

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    5.2 Conditional selection - switch

    switch()A switch statement is used instead of nested if...else statements. It is multiple branch decision statement of C.A switch statement tests a variable with list of values for equivalence. Each value is called a case.The case value must be a…

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    9.1 Structure

    In Array we can store data of one type only but structure is a variable that gives facility of storing data of different data type in one variable.Structures are variables that have several parts; each part of the object can…

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    6.2 Defination & Declaration

    A function definition contains function name parameters its code and return type and A function declaration contains only name and return type. User can define a function only once but it can be declared several times.declaration of function Syntax :<…

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    5.1 Conditional branching - if

    5.1.1 if statementAn if statement contains a Boolean expression and block of statements enclosed within braces.Structure of if statement :if (boolean expression ) /* if expression is true */  statements... ; /* Execute statements */If the Boolean expression is true…

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    6.1 Function Basics

    6.1.1 Building Blocks of ProgramsFunctions like main printf and scanf We have already come through.All C programs made up of one or more functions. There must be one and only one main function. All functions are at the same level…

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    9.6 FAQ

    Section 1: Declarations and Initializations 1.1: How do you decide which integer type to use?Use ``short'' when you need to avoid values over 32 767 ``int'' when you want to store integers ``long'' for long numbers (more than 6 digits)…

Learn C++ Programming

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    2.1 Structure of program

    /* This Program prints Hello World on screen */#include <iostream.h>using namespace std;int main (){ cout << Hello World!; return 0;}1 . /* This program ... */The symbols/* and*/ used for comment. This Comments are ignored by the compiler and are…

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    9.6 Terminology-Glossary

    Terminology / Glossary An identifier is a name which is used to refer to a variable constant function or type in C++. When necessary an identifier may have an internal structure which consists of a prefix a name and a suffix (in…

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    8.5 Function overloading

    You can have multiple definitions for the same function name in the same scope. The definition of the function must differ from each other by the types and/or the number of arguments in the argument list. You can not overload…

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    3.2 Variable scope

    Refers to where variables is declared. It can be Inside a function or a block which is called local variables In the definition of function parameters which is called formal parameters or Outside of all functions which is called global…

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    1.1 Intro to c++

    C++ is a general-purpose case-sensitive free-form programming language that supports procedural object-oriented and generic programming.C++ is regarded as a middle-level language as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T…

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    4.5 Reference

    References are another variable type of C++ that act as an alias or short name to another variable. A reference variable acts just like the original variable it is referencing. References are declared by using an ampersand (&) between the…

Learn Java Programming

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    5.8 Synchronization

    Thread synchronization is the concurrent execution of two or more threads that share critical resources. Threads should be synchronized to avoid critical resource use conflicts. Otherwise conflicts may arise when parallel-running threads attempt to modify a common variable at the…

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    5.9 Runnable Interface

    A Thread can be created by extending Thread class also. But Java allows only one class to extend it wont allow multiple inheritance. So it is always better to create a thread by implementing Runnable interface.Java allows you to impliment…

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    2.1 Operators

    Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups:- Arithmetic Operators- Relational Operators- Bitwise Operators- Logical Operators- Assignment Operators- Misc OperatorsArithmetic Operators:Arithmetic operators are used in mathematical expressions…

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    4.5 Wrapper Class

    As the name says a wrapper class wraps (encloses) around a data type and gives it an object appearance. Wherever the data type is required as an object this object can be used. Wrapper classes include methods to unwrap the…

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    3.3 Constructors

    Constructor in java is a special type of method that is used to initialize the object.Java constructor is invoked at the time of object creation. It constructs the values i.e. provides data for the object therefore it is known as…

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    3.2 Class Objects

    As pointed out earlier an object in java is essentially a block of memory that contains space to store all the instance variables. Creating an object is also referred to as instantiating an object.In Java the new keyword is used…

Learn PHP Programming

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    PHP - Files & I/O

    PHP - Files & I/O This chapter will explain following functions related to files −Opening a fileReading a fileWriting a fileClosing a fileOpening and Closing FilesThe PHP fopen() function is used to open a file. It requires two arguments stating first…

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    PHP & AJAX

    PHP & AJAX What is AJAX ?AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is a new technique for creating better faster and more interactive web applications with the help of XML HTML CSS and Java Script.Conventional web application transmit information…

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    PHP For PERL Developers

    PHP For PERL Developers This chapter will list out major similarities and differences in between PHP and PERL. This will help PERL developers to understand PHP very quickly and avoid common mistakes.SimilaritiesCompiled scripting languages − Both Perl and PHP are scripting…

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    PHP & XML

    PHP & XMLXML is a markup language that looks a lot like HTML. An XML document is plain text and contains tags delimited by < and >.There are two big differences between XML and HTML −XML doesn't define a specific…

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    PHP - Loop Types

    PHP - Loop Types Loops in PHP are used to execute the same block of code a specified number of times. PHP supports following four loop types.for − loops through a block of code a specified number of times.while − loops…

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    PHP - Syntax Overview

    PHP - Syntax Overview This chapter will give you an idea of very basic syntax of PHP and very important to make your PHP foundation strong.Escaping to PHPThe PHP parsing engine needs a way to differentiate PHP code from other elements…

Learn C# Programming

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    C# - Data Types

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Data Types The variables in C# are categorized into the following types: Value types Reference types Pointer types Value Type Value type variables can be assigned a value directly. They are derived…

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    C# - Attributes

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Attributes An attribute is a declarative tag that is used to convey information to runtime about the behaviors of various elements like classes methods structures enumerators assemblies etc. in your program. You…

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    C# - Decision Making

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Decision Making Decision making structures requires the programmer to specify one or more conditions to be evaluated or tested by the program along with a statement or statements to be executed if…

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    C# - Methods

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Methods A method is a group of statements that together perform a task. Every C# program has at least one class with a method named Main. To use a method you need…

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    C# - Useful Resources

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Useful Resources The following resources contain additional information on C#. Please use them to get more in-depth knowledge on this topic. Useful Links on C# C# Programming Guide − This provides detailed…

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    C# - Environment

    img{display: inline; height: auto; max-width: 100%;} C# - Environment Try it Option Online We have set up the C# Programming environment online so that you can compile and execute all the available examples online. It gives you confidence in what…

Learn Unix & Shell Programming

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    Unix - Getting Started

    Unix - Getting StartedWhat is Unix ?The UNIX operating system is a set of programs that act as a link between the computer and the user.The computer programs that allocate the system resources and coordinate all the details of the…

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    Unix - Shell Basic Operators

    Unix - Shell Basic OperatorsThere are various operators supported by each shell. Our tutorial is based on default shell (Bourne) so we are going to cover all the important Bourne Shell operators in the tutorial.There are following operators which we…

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    Unix - System Logging

    Unix - System LoggingUnix systems have a very flexible and powerful logging system which enables you to record almost anything you can imagine and then manipulate the logs to retrieve the information you require.Many versions of UNIX provide a general-purpose…

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    Unix - Shell Loop Control

    Unix - Shell Loop ControlSo far you have looked at creating loops and working with loops to accomplish different tasks. Sometimes you need to stop a loop or skip iterations of the loop.In this tutorial you will learn following two…

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    Unix - What is Shells?

    Unix - What is Shells?The shell provides you with an interface to the UNIX system. It gathers input from you and executes programs based on that input. When a program finishes executing it displays that program's output.A shell is an…

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    Unix - Processes Management

    Unix - Processes ManagementWhen you execute a program on your UNIX system the system creates a special environment for that program. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running…

Learn JavaScript

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    Closures

    Closures  A closure is a function that returns a function. The function that is returned (the inner function) is created inside the called function (the outer) so - due to the scoping rules we’ve seen - the inner has access to…

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    Objects

    ObjectsJavaScript objects are like a real life objects; they have properties and abilities. A JavaScript object is in that sense a collection of named properties and methods - a function. An object can be stored in a variable and the…

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    jQuery: DOM API

    JQuery: DOM API  Selecting elements and interacting with the DOM are things you’ll probably use jQuery for the most. Luckily it’s really easy to do because the syntax for choosing an element or set of elements is exactly the same as…

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    Arrays

    ArraysArrays are lists of any kind of data including other arrays. Each item in the array has an index — a number — which can be used to retrieve an element from the array. The indices start at 0; that is…

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    jQuery

    JQueryThe set of tools used to allow modification and control of the DOM are a bit of mess because they differ across browsers generally for historical reasons. To make your job easier a number of libraries have been created that…

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    Logic

    LogicA really important part of programming is being able to compare values in order to make decisions in code. When a comparison is made the outcome is either true or false; a special kind a of data called a boolean.…

SQLite Tutorial

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    Chapter 9

    Description:The SQLite SELECT statement is used to retrieve records from one or more tables. The result is stored in a result table called the result-set.Syntax: SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT ] expressions FROM tables;Note: SQLite is not case sensitive. SELECT…

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    Chapter 28

    Description: The SQLite EXISTS condition is used in combination with a Subquery and is considered “to be met” if the Subquery returns at least one row. It can be used in a SELECT INSERT UPDATE or DELETE statement.Syntax: WHERE EXISTS…

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    Chapter 1

    What is SQLite? SQLite is an in-process library that implements a self-contained serverless zero-configuration transactional SQL database engine. It is the one database which is zero-configured that means like other database you do not need to configure it in your…

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    Chapter 2

    Description: In SQLite a literal is the same as a constant. We’ll cover several types of literals – string literals number literals date and time literals and boolean literals. String Literals: String literals are always surrounded by single quotes (‘)…

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    Chapter 24

    Description:The SQLite NOT Condition (also called the NOT Operator) is used to negate a condition in a SELECT INSERT UPDATE or DELETE statement.Syntax: NOT conditionParameters or Arguments:conditionThe condition to negate.Note: The SQLite NOT condition requires that the opposite of the…

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    Chapter 12

    Description:The SQLite UPDATE statement is used to update/modify existing records in a table in a SQLite database. There are 2 syntaxes for the UPDATE statement depending on the type of update that you wish to perform.Syntax: UPDATE table SET column1…

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